«Пишите, чтобы жить стало легче»

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Письменная терапия — один из самых простых и доступных способов улучшить настроение, справиться с трудностями, решить сложную проблему. Понадобится ручка, тетрадь и желание писать. Как освоить технику самостоятельно?

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«Пишите, чтобы жить стало легче»

У вас бывает плохое настроение, хандра, ощущение, что увязли в болоте или просто выбились из сил? Ну еще бы! Сложные периоды случаются у всех, и всем хочется поскорее прийти в себя. Кому-то помогает общение с психотерапевтом. Другим — новая работа или переезд. Творческие личности часто находят отдушину в разных видах искусства.

Рисование, лепка, музыка и танцы успешно используются для духовного развития и личностного роста. Такие методы прекрасно подходят для артистичных натур, есть другие способы творческого самовыражения, которые помогают восстановить равновесие и не требуют таланта. Один из них — письменная терапия. Чтобы ощутить ее пользу, не надо быть писателем или журналистом. Нужны ручка, бумага и желание писать.

Что такое письменная терапия?

Это техника письма с терапевтическим эффектом, бюджетное, доступное и универсальное занятие. Заниматься можно самому или под присмотром психолога, практиковать в группах и использовать как дополнение к другим видам психотерапии. Во всех случаях этот метод способствует личностному росту, развивает творческие способности, повышает уверенность и помогает обрести контроль над своей жизнью.

Само действие вызывает необычайный прилив энергии — многие поэты и прозаики описывали состояние ясности в момент, когда перо касается бумаги. Созданные великие произведения еще одно доказательство тому, как много дает работа ручкой.

Многие думают, что письменная терапия заключается в том, чтобы вести дневник, но это не совсем так. Есть три отличия:

  • Дневник или записная книжка ведется в произвольной форме, автор заносит туда все, что приходит в голову. У терапевтического письма более конкретные задачи, его основой обычно служат тезисы или упражнения.
  • Как правило, в дневнике последовательно фиксируются события, цель письменной терапии — анализ событий и своих действий, мысли и чувства, изложенные на бумаге.
  • Дневник — личный инструмент, дневниковая терапия обычно проходит под наблюдением психолога или психиатра.
  • Между двумя форматами есть разница в результатах.

    Преимущества

    Вести дневник здорово, владелец тренирует память, записывая важную информацию и жизненные эпизоды, или просто расслабляется после напряженного дня. Это немало. Но письменная терапия дает больше пользы. Тем, кто пережил психологическую травму или сильный стресс, помогает метод экспрессивного письма. Участники исследования, которые четыре дня подряд по 15 минут писали о самых тяжелых переживаниях, почувствовали себя лучше, достигнутый эффект сохранился и четыре месяца спустя.

    Письменная терапия помогает переосмыслить личный опыт, взглянуть на многое иначе

    Подобный эксперимент проводился среди 100 пациентов, страдающих астмой и ревматоидным артритом, результат оказался положительным. Они тоже писали о трагических событиях, и после этого их самочувствие улучшилось, признаки заболевания стали менее выраженными. Еще одно исследование показало, что метод экспрессивного письма восстанавливает иммунную систему и в целом укрепляет здоровье. Вдобавок, письменная терапия помогает переосмыслить личный опыт, взглянуть на многое иначе, найти немало хорошего в самых болезненных и неприятных переживаниях. Благодаря ей становится проще понимать себя и поступки окружающих.

    Она эффективна при состояниях разной степени тяжести и психических расстройствах:

    • посттравматический стресс;
    • тревожность;
    • депрессия;
    • обсессивно-компульсивное расстройство;
    • реакция горя и чувство потери;
    • психосоматические заболевания;
    • субстанциональная зависимость;
    • нарушения пищевого поведения;
    • проблемы межличностных отношений;
    • проблемы в общении;
    • низкая самооценка.

    С чего начать?

    Если работаете со специалистом, вам подскажут, как вести записи. Если хотите заняться самотерапией, главное — настроиться на успех. Выберите подходящий формат: ежедневник, блокнот или обыкновенную тетрадь. Если так покажется интереснее, займитесь оформлением, добавьте индивидуальности.

    Поставьте цель ежедневно уделять записям конкретное количество времени. Решите, где и когда вы будете писать. Набросайте, о чем вам хотелось бы написать, пусть это будет ваша первая заметка.

    Следующие пять шагов:

  • О чем вы будете писать? Определите тему.
  • Представьте это, закройте глаза, глубоко дышите, сосредоточьтесь.
  • Прислушайтесь к мыслям и чувствам. Начните писать.
  • Следите за временем: пишите 5-15 минут.
  • Заканчивайте осмысленно: перечитайте написанное и сформулируйте основную мысль в одном-двух предложениях.
  • Главное, помните:

    • Получилось несколько слов или несколько страниц, пишите в своем темпе.
    • Не имеет значения, о чем писать, старайтесь следить за временем и не отвлекаться.
    • Стиль и содержание не принципиальны, записывайте то, что близко, в чем видите смысл.
    • Пишите так, как будто никто этого не прочтет, не для широкой публики, для себя.
    • Возможно, сначала будет нелегко, но первые шаги всегда даются с трудом, не бросайте.

    Шпаргалка для автора

    Эти идеи и подсказки — отличное средство, чтобы продолжать записи, или включиться, когда раздумываешь, о чем бы написать в этот раз.

    Выполните пять письменных заданий:

  • Написать письмо себе.
  • Написать письма друзьям и знакомым.
  • Придумать поэму.
  • Написать сочинение на свободную тему.
  • Нарисовать майнд-карту — в центре главная проблема, а от нее указатели к причинам и возможным способам решения.
  • Подсказки.

    Описания по фотографии. Возьмите свое фото и отвечайте на вопросы: «Что я чувствую, когда рассматриваю это фото?» или «Что я могу сказать о людях, месте и предметах на этих фото?».

    Задание на время. Выберите тему и непрерывно пишите 10-15 минут по таймеру.

    Ключевые фразы. Начинайте с окрыляющей фразы-подсказки, например «Больше всего на свете меня волнует…», «Я плохо сплю, когда…», «Мое самое счастливое воспоминание — это…»

    Список-100. Такие списки можно составлять о чем угодно. Допустим, «100 поводов для печали», «100 причин просыпаться пораньше», «100 любимых занятий».

    Психолог Маргарита Тартаковски предлагает варианты:

  • Больше всего я люблю проводить день…
  • Если бы можно было дать совет себе-подростку, я бы…
  • 30 причин, которые заставляют меня улыбнуться.
  • Правила моей жизни.
  • Я хочу, чтобы другие узнали обо мне…
  • Из-за чего я могу расплакаться?
  • Опишите себя в десяти словах.
  • Составьте список вопросов, которые требуют срочного решения.
  • «Пишите, чтобы жить стало легче»

    Упражнения и идеи для старта

    При всех преимуществах письменной терапии, взяться за нее может быть трудно. Любая полезная привычка требует усилий.

    Чтобы приобрести привычку писать, еще десять рекомендаций.

  • Опишите текущий момент — здесь и сейчас.
  • Пусть это будет просто поток сознания 5-10 минут.
  • Начните диалог с внутренним ребенком: попробуйте писать левой рукой (если вы левша — правой).
  • Поддерживайте чувство благодарности, ежедневно записывайте, за что признательны, и дополняйте список вдохновляющими цитатами.
  • Напишите автобиографию.
  • Опишите наблюдения за природой, чтобы ощутить с нею связь.
  • Ведите дневник успехов.
  • Составьте список любимых музыкальных композиций.
  • Если что-то беспокоит или случились неприятности, напишите об этом в третьем лице.
  • Развивайте интуицию, учитесь прислушиваться к себе и пишите об этом. Если все еще не начали, попробуйте технику «перезагрузка мозга». Писательница Джилли Болтон советует писать о чем попало 6 минут. Не обращайте внимания на грамматику, пишите. После того как «перезагрузитесь», можно сосредоточиваться на теме, например, памятные события из детства.
  • Благодаря этому упражнению записи будут глубже и осмысленнее. На этом закончим разговор о письменной терапии, теперь вы знаете, что это, как ее практиковать и чем она полезна.

    Источник: positivepsychologyprogram.com

    Источник: psychologies.ru

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