Три урока Стивена Хокинга

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«Максимум два с половиной года», — говорили врачи, а он прожил еще полвека. Утратив способность говорить, общался с окружающими при помощи компьютера. Полностью потеряв подвижность, совершил полет в невесомости. Написал полтора десятка книг, занимался наукой, преподавал. 14 марта 2018 года не стало Стивена Хокинга — физика-теоретика, перевернувшего наше представление о строении и происхождении Вселенной.

Три урока Стивена Хокинга

Даже если вы никогда не слышали о том, что такое квантовая космология, не интересовались теорией черных дыр и не держали в руках книгу «Краткая история времени», вы почти наверняка знаете, кто такой Стивен Хокинг. Да-да, тот самый ученый в инвалидном кресле, с синтезатором голоса. Нам всем было и есть чему у него поучиться. И речь не только и не столько о физике.

Никогда не сдавайтесь

В 1963 году у 20-летнего Хокинга диагностировали боковой амиотрофический склероз (БАС) — редкое неизлечимое заболевание, при котором страдают двигательные нейроны, что приводит к параличу и атрофии мышц. Болезнь прогрессировала: сначала ученый передвигался, опираясь на трость, в 1967 году перемещался на костылях, а вскоре пересел в инвалидное кресло. В 1985 году после воспаления легких и нескольких операций Хокинг полностью утратил способность говорить.

Однако ученый не стал заложником болезни и даже находил в ней плюсы:

«Не могу сказать, что мое физическое состояние помогает в работе, но оно позволяет сконцентрироваться на исследованиях, избегая лекций и скучных конференций».

БАС не помешал Хокингу жениться (дважды, второй раз — на своей сиделке), стать отцом (трижды), вести научно-популярные программы и даже совершить полет в невесомости на Boeing 727.

Три урока Стивена Хокинга
В 1979 году в Принстоне.

Не ищите угрозу вовне

Хокинг не верил, что мы одни во Вселенной, — с математической точки зрения это маловероятно. Другой вопрос, какие они, инопланетные формы жизни, и как отнеслись бы землянам, если бы нам довелось встретиться. Впрочем, угрозу ученый видел не в космосе, а в самих людях:

«Самая сложная проблема, с какой довелось столкнуться человечеству, — это наши агрессивные инстинкты… Эти инстинкты были необходимы для выживания и были отпечатаны в наших головах на уровне генетического кода. Сейчас, со всем тем ядерным оружием, что у нас есть, мы уже не можем ждать, когда эволюция избавит нас от наших инстинктов».

В этом с физиком солидарны многие психологи, исследователи, религиозные деятели, писатели и художники. Но что можно противопоставить агрессии? Хокинг был уверен, что сопереживание, — возможно, потому, что именно сочувствие, внимание и забота окружающих помогли ему выжить.

Три урока Стивена Хокинга
С актером Эдди Редмэйном на премьере фильма «Вселенная Стивена Хокинга», 2014 год.

Мыслите нестандартно

Столкновение с астероидом, вспышка гамма-лучей сверхновой звезды, кардинальное изменение климата… Катастрофа, угрожающая жизни на Земле, неизбежна, считал Хокинг, причем уже в ближайшую пару сотен лет. Но это не повод ставить крест на цивилизации.

«Человеческой расе не стоит держать все яйца в одной корзине — на одной планете. Наш единственный шанс долговременного выживания — освоить космос. Колонизация других планет — это уже не научная фантастика, это может стать научным фактом».

Он искренне верил в такую возможность и видел в ней наше спасение. В конце концов, «мы всего лишь развитые потомки обезьян на маленькой планете с ничем не примечательной звездой. Но у нас есть шансы постичь Вселенную. Это и делает нас особенными».

10 фактов о Стивене Хокинге

  • В детстве любимыми книгами Хокинга были «Путешествие к центру Земли» и «Двадцать тысяч лье под водой» Жюля Верна.
  • Из школьных предметов будущий ученый больше всего не любил французский язык.
  • Как и его родители, он окончил Оксфорд.
  • Ученый изучал теорию возникновения мира в результате Большого взрыва и теорию черных дыр. Он предположил, что черные дыры малой массы «испаряются» за счет явления, получившего название «излучение Хокинга».
  • У Стивена Хокинга трое детей: сыновья Роберт и Тимоти и дочь Люси.
  • Книга «Краткая история времени», впервые изданная в 1988 году, переведена на десятки языков и издана общим тиражом более 10 млн экземпляров.
  • Ученый дважды посещал Москву: в 1973 и 1981 годах.
  • Хокинг озвучил самого себя в «Симпсонах» и «Футураме», появлялся в сериале «Теория Большого взрыва» и в одном из эпизодов сериала «Звездный путь: следующее поколение».
  • В кино его роль исполняли Бенедикт Камбербэтч («Хокинг», реж. Филип Мартин, 2004 год) и Эдди Редмэйн («Вселенная Стивена Хокинга», реж. Джеймс Марш, 2014 год).
  • К концу жизни ученого подвижность сохранила лишь мимическая мышца щеки. Напротив нее был закреплен датчик, с помощью которого физик управлял компьютером и общался с окружающими.
  • Источник: psychologies.ru

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